Austria, Upper

   Known throughout much of its history as Austria above the Enns, Upper Austria is the most industrialized of all the Federal Republic’s provinces. It accounts for about 25 percent of modern Austria’s industrial output and exports. It is an agricultural center as well, and its numerous and picturesque lakes make it a favorite summer resort. Like Lower Austria, it is administered in four historic quarters (Germ.: Vierteln), which took shape over several centuries of development and territorial acquisition. The capital is Linz, which is both a manufacturing center and a port on the Danube River.
   There is evidence for the settlement of Upper Austria from the early Stone Age. An elaborate culture developed around Hallstatt during the Ice Age. During the Roman era in the history of central Europe, the part of Upper Austria that lies south of the Danube was incorporated into the imperial province of Noricum. The modern city of Wels (Lat.: Ovilava) was its capital. Bavarian infiltration began in the latter part of the sixth and beginning of the seventh centuries; Slavs appeared in the east and southeast of the region. As part of the Bavarian duchy of the Agilofinger, Upper Austria was incorporated into the Carolingian Empire under Charlemagne in 788.
   The 10th and 11th centuries were especially unsettled times in Upper Austria, as control over parts of it shifted among Magyar invaders, local dynasties such as the Lambachs, the Bavarians, and the Otakar dynasty, which would eventually come to control Styria. The Babenbergs, based in Lower Austria, who already controlled a great deal of the surrounding area, acquired title to the territory above the Enns in the second half of the 12th century. The move was part of a general expansion of the dynasty’s influence throughout the Austrian lands; a separate territorial identity for Upper Austria developed only after this time. It was not until the middle of the 13th century that Upper Austria (Lat.: Austria superior) was used to designate noble judicial and communal structures in the terrain roughly between Ybbs and Hausruck.
   Once the Habsburgs took over the area in the latter third of the century, it became a distinct administrative unit with its own governor. The coat of arms of Upper Austria dates from 1390. By the 15th century, Upper Austria was acquiring greater provincial identity through its local estates. Nevertheless, the precise nature of its legal relationship to Lower Austria was not clarified until well into modern times. In 1861, Austria above the Enns was granted equivalent status to Austria below the Enns within the Habsburg domains. The archbishoprics of Salzburg and Passau also had extensive territorial holdings in Upper Austria, some of which endured until the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. Upper Austria was especially troubled by the events of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. The site of stubborn agrarian unrest at the end of the 16th century, the area was also heavily Protestant. Significant elements of the local nobility sympathized with the Bohemian uprising against Habsburg rule that set off the Thirty Years’ War. The re-catholicization of the area, which began in the 1620s, was especially brutal. The Habsburgs continued to add to the territory; the settlement following the War of the Bavarian Succession brought the Inn Viertel under Habsburg control. The Anschluss with Germany in 1938 finally gave Adolf Hitler (1889–1945), born in Braunau on the Inn, a German birthplace.
   Following World War II, Upper Austria was divided into two zones of occupation. The area south of the Danube was under American control; the territory north of the river was largely in Soviet hands. Its industrial facilities and its port infrastructure in Linz were quickly rebuilt.

Historical dictionary of Austria. . 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Austria: history —    Prehistory and Antiquity    The terrain covered by modern Austria has had some form of human habitation since the Early Stone Age. The first evidence for humans into the alpine valleys comes from around 150,000 years BCE. During the    Early… …   Historical dictionary of Austria

  • Austria history: chronology —  ♦ 5000 BCE Late Stone Age culture.  ♦ 2000 Indo Germanic settlements northwest of Vienna.  ♦ 800 Bronze Age settlements on the Vienna Hoher Markt.  ♦ 750 Hallstatt culture.  ♦ 400 Celtic culture.  ♦ 15 Roman occupation of province of Noricum.  ♦ …   Historical dictionary of Austria

  • Austria: land and people —    Though covered by mountains over 62 percent of its land, modern Austria is geographically diverse. The entire area of the country amounts to 83,855 square kilometers in the heart of central Europe. Only western Austria the Vorarlberg, Tyrol… …   Historical dictionary of Austria

  • Upper Austria — Oberösterreich   State of Austria   …   Wikipedia

  • Austria at the Time of National Socialism — describes in particular the period of Austrian history from March 12, 1938 when the German annexation of Austria made Austria part of the German Third Reich until the end of World War II in spring 1945. Early history In 1918, at the end of World… …   Wikipedia

  • AUSTRIA — AUSTRIA, country in Central Europe. Middle Ages Jews lived in Austria from the tenth century. However the history of the Jews in Austria from the late Middle Ages was virtually that of the Jews in vienna and its environs. In the modern period,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Upper Őrség — (Hun: Felső Őrség , German: Wart ) is a traditional ethnographic region and a small Hungarian language island in southern Burgenland, Austria. It consists the town of Oberwart (Hun: Felsőőr ) and the two villages of Unterwart (Hun: Alsóőr ) and… …   Wikipedia

  • Upper Carniola — in Slovenia Upper Carniola (Slovene: Gorenjska; German: Oberkrain) is a traditional region of Slovenia, the northern mountainous part of the larger Carniola region. The centre of the region is Kranj …   Wikipedia

  • Austria — Austrian, adj., n. /aw stree euh/, n. a republic in central Europe. 8,054,078; 32,381 sq. mi. (83,865 sq. km). Cap.: Vienna. German, Österreich. * * * Austria Introduction Austria Background: Once the center of power for the large Austro… …   Universalium

  • Austria — This article is about the country. For other uses, see Austria (disambiguation). Österreich and Oesterreich redirect here. For the surname rendered in either of these two ways, see Österreich (surname). For the Austrian national anthem, whose… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.